Участник:Hellerick/LISA

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The Latin English Socialist Alphabet (Latin Inglish Söcialist Alfabet, LISA) is a reformed writing system for the English language.

Formally it's supposed to exist in an alternate history timeline where Britain is ruled by socialists who have implement a radical spelling reform, hence it's called 'Socialist'. It is not claimed that it's the same system which is used in George Orwell's "1984", but "English socialism" is abbreviated as "Ingsöc" in it.

Practically it's a development of the earlier Cyrillic system (CISA).

Principles

Most consonants are represented according to their pronunciation.

The stressed vowels and diphthongs are represented according to their pronunciation.

Unstressed vowels mostly are represented according to their etymology.

Special provisions are made to make sure that the words of romance origin still look related to their foreign counterparts.

In general it's implied that the spelling should allow same level alterations which are made in the modern orthographies of the Germanic and Romance languages.

Alphabet

The alphabet consists of 32 letters, the 26 standard English letters and 6 additional ones (Ə, Ä Ë, Ï, Ö, Ü):

A Ä B C D E Ë Ə F G H I Ï J K L M N O Ö P Q R S T U Ü V W X Y Z

The letters A, Ä, E, Ë, Ə, I, Ï, O, Ö, U, Ü are vowels.

The letters B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z are consonants.

The letter Y can be either.

Letter values

Basic values

Letters Sounds Examples Notes
A a /æ/ trap = trap
Ä ä /eɪ/ able = äbel Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
B b /b/ bit = bit
C c /s/ cease = cës; voice = voic Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
Ch ch /tʃ/ cheap = chyp
Ci ci /ʃ/ nation = näcion Before a vowel. Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
D d /d/ din = din
E e /ɛ/ dress = dres
Ë ë /i:/ please = plëz Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
Ə ə /ʌ/ strut = strət
Əu əu /ɔː/ sauce = səuc
F f /f/ face = fäc
G g /g/ gut = gət
H h /h/ ham = ham
I i /ɪ/ kit = kit
Ï ï /aɪ/ price = prïc Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
J j /dʒ/ just = jəst; bridge = brij; gesture = jestür
K k /k/ cut = kət
Kn kn /n/ knife = knaif Used etymologically.
L l /l/ left = left
M m /m/ map = map
N n /n/ nose = nouz
ng /ŋ/ sing = sing
O o /ɔ/ lot = lot
Ö ö /oʊ/ pose = pöz Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
P p /p/ pit = pit
Qu qu /kw/ quiet = quïet Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
R r /r/ run = rən
S s /s/ sap = sap
Sh sh /ʃ/ shock = shok
Si si /ʃ/ passion = pasion Before a vowel. Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
T t /t/ tin = tin
Th th /θ/, /ð/ think = think; this = this
Ti ti /tʃ/ question = question Before a vowel. Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
U u /u:/, /ʊ/ cool = kul; pull = pul Default representation of /u:/.[1]
Uu uu /u:/ pool = puul Used when the spelling with ‘u’ is already taken by another word.[1]
Ü ü /ju:/ use = üz Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
V v /v/ vat = vat
W w /w/ wet = wet; what = wot
X x /ks/, /gz/ excuse = exküs; exam = exam Usually used in a word of Romance origin.
Y y /j/; /i:/ yes = yes; mean = myn /j/ before a vowel, /i:/ otherwise.
Z z /z/ zap = zap

Combinations with 'r'

Combinations Sounds Examples
ar /ɑː(r)/ start = start
ir /aɪə(r) hire = hir
aur /aʊə(r)/ our = our
er /eə(r)/ where = wer
ir /ɪə(r)/ near = nir
or /ɔː(r)/ force = forc
ur /ʊə(r)/ poor = pur
ür /jʊə(r)/ cure = kür
ər /ɜː(r)/ nurse = nərs

Synonymous representations

Some letters and letter combinations have same sound values which can be used to distinguish homophones.

Letters Sounds Examples Notes
ä, ei, ey /eɪ/ male = mäl; mail = meil; wait = weit; weight = weyt 'ä’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘a’ in Romance languages; ‘ey’ can be used when corresponding to ‘eigh’ in the current orthography.
är, er, eir /eə(r)/ square = squӓr; where = wer; their = their 'är’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘ar’ in Romance languages; ‘eir’ usually is used in Germanic words when corresponding to ‘ar’ or ‘eir’ in the Middle English.
aur, auer /aʊə(r)/ our = aur; hour = auer
c, s /s/ scene = scën; seen = syn 'c’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘c’ in Romance languages.
ë, y, yi /i:/ scene = scën; see = sy; sea = syi 'ë’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘e’ in Romance languages.
ër, ir, yr /ɪə(r)/ peer = për; here = hir; hear = hyr 'ër’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘er’ in Romance languages.
ï, ai, əi /aɪ/ sign = sïn; I = ai; eye = əi; write = rait; right = rəit 'ï’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘i’ in Romance languages; ‘əi’ can be used when corresponding to ‘igh’ in the current orthography.
ïr, air /aɪə(r) entire = en­tïr; fire = fair 'ïr’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘ir’ in Romance languages.
ö, ou, ow, wou /oʊ/ so = sou; sow = sow; sew = swou 'ö’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘o’ in Romance languages; 'wou’ is used etymologically when corresponding to an Old English form with /w/.
or, our /o:(r)/ for = for; four = four
qu, kw /kw/ quiet = quïet; queen = kwyn 'qu’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘qu’ in Romance languages.
ü, eu /ju:/ suer = süer; sewer = seuer 'ü’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘u’ in Romance languages; ‘eu’ is used etymologically.
u[1], uu, wu /u:/ moon = mun; fool = fuul; pool = puul; too = tuu; two = twu 'wu’ is used etymologically when corresponding to an Old English form with /w/.
x, ks /ks/ sex = sex; six = siks 'x’ usually is used when corresponding to ‘x’ in Romance languages.

Sometimes 'Romance' vowels are used in words of Germanic origin: yeast = yëst (to avoid double 'y' in 'yyst'), mane = män (to avoid homography with main = mein).

Examples

Extract from 'The Star' by H. G. Wells / Extrakt frəm 'The Star' bai H. J. Welz

It was on the first day of the new year that the announcement was made, almost simultaneously from three observatories, that the motion of the planet Neptune, the outermost of all the planets that wheel about the sun, had become very erratic. Ogilvy had already called attention to a suspected retardation in its velocity in December. Such a piece of news was scarcely calculated to interest a world the greater portion of whose inhabitants were unaware of the existence of the planet Neptune, nor outside the astronomical profession did the subsequent discovery of a faint remote speck of light in the region of the perturbed planet cause any very great excitement. Scientific people, however, found the intelligence remarkable enough, even before it became known that the new body was rapidly growing larger and brighter, that its motion was quite different from the orderly progress of the planets, and that the deflection of Neptune and its satellite was becoming now of an unprecedented kind. It woz on the fərst dei əv the neu yir that the anauncment woz meid, olmoust sïmultäneosli frəm thry obzərvatoriz, that the möcion əv the planet Neptün, the autermöst əv ol the planets that wyl abaut the sən, had bekəm veri eratik. Ögilvi had olredi kold atencion tu a suspekted retardäcion in its velociti in December. Səch a pëc əv neuz woz skärcli kalküläted tu intrest a wərld the greiter porcion əv huz inhabitants wər ənaweir əv the existenc əv the planet Neptün, nor autsaid the astronomikal profesion did the səbsequent diskəveri əv a feint remöt spek əv ləit in the rëjon əv the pertərbd planet kəuz eni veri greit excïtment. Scïentifik pëpel, hauever, faund the intelijenc remarkabel enəf, yven befor it bekeim knoun that the neu bodi woz rapidli grouing larjer and brəiter, that its möcion woz quït diferent frəm the orderli progres əv the planets, and that the deflekcion əv Neptün and its satelït woz bekəming nau əv an ənprecedented kaind.

Notes

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 While in the current English spelling the combination 'oo' is used both for /u:/ and /ʊ/; while the letter 'u' can be used for the short /ʊ/; in LISA the letter 'u' is used both for /u:/ and /ʊ/; while the combination 'uu' can be used for the long /u:/.